Many of us experience a deeper layer of suffering, a “meta-pain” that arises from our attempts to process and understand another pain. This essay explores the nature of pain, its purpose, and how we can manage our suffering through cognitive reappraisal.
The Origins of Suffering:
We often experience pain as a result of external events, such as physical injury, emotional trauma, or social rejection. However, the true depth of our suffering often stems from how we interpret and frame these events. Our internal narratives can amplify the initial pain, transforming it into full-blown suffering.
For example, losing work due to a corrupted hard drive may initially cause frustration and anger. But if we frame this incident as a microcosm of life’s futility, it can escalate into deep despair. Conversely, viewing it as a mere inconvenience, a lesson in backups, can limit the extent of our suffering. This illustrates how the framing of pain can significantly impact its intensity and duration.
The Purpose of Pain:
The existence of pain has long puzzled philosophers and theologians. Why would a benevolent universe allow for such suffering? Perhaps the purpose of pain is precisely its unpleasantness. By its very nature, pain motivates us to avoid it, prompting us to take actions that ensure our survival and well-being. It acts as a natural signaling mechanism, a necessary, albeit unpleasant, part of life.
While pain serves a functional purpose, it’s not always perfect. Disease, chronic pain, and other afflictions demonstrate that pain can be dysfunctional. However, even these seemingly unnecessary pains often communicate negative feedback about our state, behavior, or environment. In other cases, pain provides a disincentive through fear, motivating us to avoid future harm.
Suffering From Unnecessary Pain:
Why do we suffer when pain serves a purpose? Perhaps we suffer the most from pains whose purpose we don’t understand. A child’s tears, a needle prick, or exercise soreness are rarely interpreted as suffering. We tolerate them as fleeting inconveniences. These can be categorized as “necessary pains.”
However, “superfluous pains,” like chronic illness or emotional trauma, evoke feelings of anger, pessimism, and further suffering. This happens because we struggle to find a meaning or purpose behind these pains. Just as a child overwhelmed by pain loses perspective, we can become trapped in a cycle of suffering with complex, existential pains.
Cognitive Reframing: Minimizing Suffering:
Cognitive reappraisal offers a powerful tool to minimize suffering. By reinterpreting the context surrounding the pain, we can dramatically shift its emotional impact. This involves understanding the necessity of the pain, accepting its inevitability, and even finding humor in its absurdity.
Case Study: Dealing with Racism:
As a Black man in America, I’ve faced numerous instances of racism, from casual slurs to blatant discrimination. These experiences initially caused anger, indignation, and a sense of dehumanization. I felt like my individuality was reduced to a mere racial category.
Over time, I learned to reappraise these situations. I accepted the painful reality that racism exists and that I will likely encounter it again. This freed me from the burden of trying to control or prevent these situations. Understanding the psychological roots of racism softened my stance against it, replacing anger with empathy.
Furthermore, I learned to find humor in the absurdity of racial prejudice. What if we judged people based on hair color or blood type rather than skin color? This playful perspective helped me detach from the negativity and view these experiences with detachment and humor.
Absurdities like this: